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   Table of Contents - Current issue
September-December 2022
Volume 3 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 45-90

Online since Saturday, October 8, 2022

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Unveiling the basics of chest radiography for nurses p. 45
Jitender Singh, Tarika Sharma
The discovery of X-ray beam in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen provided clinicians with a noninvasive diagnostic method to evaluate the internal alteration of anatomy within the body. Although different health providers prescribe and interpret chest X-ray (CXR), nurses are usually the first to prepare the patient for X-rays, read the radiologist's report, and provide the interpretation to a clinician. This review highlights the basics of chest radiography which will help the nurses to learn the concept and perform their work efficiently.
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Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, and Homoeopathy medicines as an adjuvant in the treatment of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials p. 49
Danish Javed, Ashish Kumar Dixit, Sukhes Mukherjee, Sana Anwar, Nibha Giri
Background and Objectives: Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, and Homoeopathy (AYUSH); India's traditional medical system has made significant contributions to COVID-19. However, the results of controlled trials were mixed. To reach factual conclusions, we conducted systematic study and meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: An exhaustive literature search on COVID-19 and AYUSH was conducted using electroinic databases such as PubMed/Medline, CAM-QUEST, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials since inception to February 2022. Pooled estimates of the parameters were assessed in terms of standard mean difference (SMD) and relative risk (rr) using RevMan software. Risk of bias (RoB) in individual studies and across studies was assessed through Cochrane tool of bias and Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach, respectively. Results: A total of 13 studies out of 650 articles were considered for the meta-analysis. Combined therapy showed greater effect to recovery rate and period (RR = 0.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.11–0.55] P = 0.0007) (mean differences [MD] = −2.29, 95% CI − 4.62–0.04, P = 0.05), respectively. Cycle threshold value of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (MD = −2.16, 95% CI − 2.90– −1.43, P < 0.00001), interleukin (IL)-6 (MD = −0.31, 95% CI − 0.57 –−0.05, P = 0.02), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (MD = −3.38, 95% CI − 4.25 – −2.51, P < 0.00001), lactate dehydrogenase (MD = −1.97, 95% CI − 2.57 to − 1.38, P < 0.00001). In homeopathy preventive trial, lesser number of occurrences of events were found (odds ratio = 0.12, 95% CI 0.03–0.47, P = 0.002). RoB was unclear. Conclusion: COVID-19 may benefit from AYUSH interventions as an adjunct. High-quality randomized controlled trials are required to evaluate and validate this.
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Impact of drug use on patient symptom score and quality of life in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients p. 63
Harshank Vishnubhai Patel, Kamlesh P Patel, Ketan B Rajguru, Supriya D Malhotra
Introduction: To assess the drug use pattern for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients and its impact on patient symptom score and quality of life (QoL) of these patients. Materials and Methods: After getting approval from the Indian Council of Medical Research, Institutional Ethics Committee and after obtaining written informed consent from 103 BPH patients, their demographic data, drugs prescribed to them, and scores of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index (BII) were recorded. Patients were reassessed for changes in scores of IPSS, BII, and drug prescription (if any) on the 15th, 30th, and 60th days. Results: 68.93% of patients received drug as a single entity. Patients were classified according to their presenting symptoms as severe, low moderate, and mild with a mean total IPSS score of 16.73% ± 6.6. 37.86% of patients were dissatisfied with QoL and 24.27% of patients had mixed opinion with a mean score of 3.39 ± 1.08. There was a low, medium, moderate, and high total score of BII with a mean BII score of 4.02 ± 2.51. Significant changes were seen in total BII score and frequency of urination on day 15; weak stream, nocturia, total score, and QoL on day 30; and intermittency and urgency on day 60. Incomplete emptying of bladder and straining showed nonsignificant changes. Age and total IPSS score, age and QoL, and age and total BII score showed a negative correlation. Total IPSS score and QoL, total IPSS and BII score, and QoL and total BII score showed a positive correlation. Conclusion: Nonsurgical pharmacological intervention had a positive impact on the IPSS and BII score and health-related QoL in BPH patients.
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Treatment and control of diabetes in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis p. 69
Roy Arokiam Daniel, Kalaivani Mani, Praveen Aggarwal, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta
Background: Diabetes is a major contributor to hospital admissions, out-of-pocket expenditure, and premature mortality in India. Proper treatment and adequate control rates are needed to reduce the complications and deaths due to diabetes. Hence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of community-based studies to estimate the treatment and control rate of diabetes among adults in India. Methods: A systematic electronic search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar to retrieve community-based studies which reported the prevalence of treatment and control of diabetes among adults in India, without any date or language restriction. To estimate the pooled prevalence and heterogeneity, the random-effects model and I2 statistic methods were employed. We did subgroup analyses based on study setting and type of blood test. Results: We included seven studies in this meta-analysis, which comprised a total of 9,033 participants. The pooled prevalence of treatment and control of diabetes among adults in India was 75.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 63.8%–86.2%) and 56.4% (95% CI: 44.7%–67.9%), respectively. There was significant heterogeneity between the studies (P < 0.001). The subgroup analysis based on the study setting revealed a decrease in heterogeneity among the urban studies for the control of diabetes. Conclusions: Three-fourths of the diagnosed (self-reported) diabetic patients were on treatment. Of these, half of the patients had adequate glycemic control. Targeted actions need to focus on the determinants of adherence to medication and follow-up.
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A study to assess reaction time and its association with adiposity indices in healthy individuals in Uttarakhand p. 78
Praveen Kumar Singh, Sagar Sanjeev Dua, Tanu Varshney, Sarama Saha
Introduction: Reaction time is the central indicator of the central nervous system's sensorimotor coordination and processing skills, as well as coordinated peripheral movement response. There is a substantial positive link between body mass index (BMI) and reaction time. However, no studies on the impact of old and novel adiposity indices on cognitive capacity measurement have been done. As a result, this study was carried out to see if there was a link between visceral adiposity index (VAI) and lipid accumulation product (LAP) and reaction time in healthy Uttarakhand residents. Materials and Methods: The observational study was conducted in 2018 from January to June at AIIMS, Rishikesh to screen 89 individuals aged 20–40 years, who were in good health and lived in adjacent areas to examine reaction time simple reaction time (SRT) and choice reaction time [CRT]) and its relationship with adiposity indices. The Deary-Liewald reaction time task (software) was used to examine the participants' reaction time, which was followed by anthropometric measurements and other biochemical tests. Results: Among 89 individuals, 61% were male and 39% were female. In terms of age, BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio, and response time, there was no significant difference between males and females. However, males had a faster reaction time than females. VAI is substantially higher in females than in males. Females have more LAP than males, although the difference is not statistically significant. Conclusion: LAP had a substantially better association than BMI and WC in the case of females with respect to the association with CRT because LAP includes both anthropometric WC and lipid parameters (triglycerides). In healthy people, LAP could be recommended as a superior indicator for assessing response time as a measure of cognitive ability.
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Anxiety perception among children following two different restorative modalities – A noninferiority randomized clinical trial p. 83
R Hemalatha, S Nirmala, K Viswaja
Background: Anxiety perception among children plays a significant part in providing oral health care since both are interlinked. Perception refers to the ways or means by which anything is perceived or interpreted. Perception is awareness of the elements of the environment through physical sensation. As part of oral health-care initiation, the present study aimed to compare the anxiety perception among children following two different restorative modalities of atraumatic restorative treatment versus chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR). Methodology: A nonrandomized clinical trial was conducted over 2 months between February 20, 2021 and April 22, 2021, to compare the anxiety perception among children. Children below 14 years were selected for the study purpose. Results: Poisson regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between outcome and the variables. The results showed that the majority of children had dental anxiety issues, who were willing to improve their cooperative levels during dental treatment appointments. No statistically significant association was seen between the two different restorative modalities. Lower heart rate was observed when CMCR was used (P = 0.013). Conclusion: Anxiety perception among children plays a significant part in providing oral health care. The effectiveness of implementation was appropriate with regard to choosing the right treatment modalities among clinicians. Both the techniques showed minimal or lesser anxiety levels, but on a comparative note, CMCR was better, both in terms of patient acceptance and ease of performance.
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It is Better Late than Never: An Interesting Case of Central Nervous System Vasculitis p. 87
Debabrata Chakraborty, Sadanand Dey, Sanjay Bhaumik, Gobinda Pramanick
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Uncommon course of a common disease: An interesting case of guillain–Barre syndrome p. 89
Debabrata Chakraborty, Sanjay Bhaumik, Sadanand Dey, Sanjay Chatterjee
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