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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
September-December 2021
Volume 2 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 61-98

Online since Wednesday, September 29, 2021

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EDITORIAL  

Impact of artificial intelligence and big data on the healthcare profession? p. 61
Raman Kumar
DOI:10.4103/jopcs.jopcs_21_21  
If one looks back on human history, there are cycles of civilizational growth and destruction. One can admire the craftsmanship and statesmanship from the past as we move forward and create the future of new complexities. We are at the crossroad of human history. Social media and digital infrastructure have already changed the social transactions of human beings forever. Intelligent robots, drones, digital monitoring, ever-evolving decision-making algorithms, consumer analytics are impacting human transaction. The rapidly enabling tech environment is bound to have a long-lasting impact on the human interface of the healthcare delivery system; the medical professionals and the healthcare workers.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Feedback of postgraduate students about workshop on making an effective research paper p. 63
Uttam Kumar Paul, Ranabir Pal, Kunja Lal Talukdar
DOI:10.4103/jopcs.jopcs_19_20  
Background: Researchers on medical educational technologies use learner's feedbacks containing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to develop content and form of training programs in students' learning as a universally approved concept. Objectives: The objectives were to sensitize the first-year postgraduate residents about the publication of research and collect their immediate reflection. Materials and Methods: Feedback was taken from all the 49 participants at the end of the 2-day in-house workshop on “Making an effective research paper.” The data collection tool was unlinked anonymous containing six open-ended questions for immediate postsession evaluation on their futuristic vision on implementation and was analyzed by the researchers. Results: In response to “Comments regarding the research methodology workshop,” more than half agreed on positive aspects of the workshop on improved cognition with relevant information. Overall, favored “best” sessions were “Reference writing,” “Plagiarism check,” and “Search relevant article and write the Literature review.” Regarding the avenue of improvement of the workshop, they stressed on timing of workshop before the synopsis submission of their academic year, pre distribution of reading material, and shorter lengths of sessions. Conclusions: The feedback permitted the participants to echo their candid feelings to meet their learning objective as they rated the workshop constructively for each prompt with gain in broad-based cognitive domain with hopeful attitude for intended practice in their academic growth.
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Effectiveness of short-term resuscitation training programming among medical trainees of a peripheral medical college and practicing professionals p. 68
Rohini Sharma, Arvind Kumar, Upendra Baitha, Neeraj Kumar Swarnkar, C Prasanth Unnikrishnan, Abhinav Kumar, Upendra Kumar, Vishwajeet Singh, Vishal Kumar Vishwakarma, Piyush Ranjan, Naveet Wig
DOI:10.4103/jopcs.jopcs_6_21  
Background: Resuscitation in trauma and nontrauma patients (RTNTP) is essential for prompt recognition, timely prevention, and effective management of life-threatening emergencies (LTEs). Optimal knowledge and skills of health-care providers (HCPs) are most important. Structured resuscitation training programs are lacking in peripheral districts and medical colleges to the best of our knowledge. Materials and Methods: A 3-day short training program on RTNTP was conducted in the month of February 2020 at the Bihar Orthopedic Association Conference, in which trainees from the peripheral medical colleges of the districts and practitioners participated. A preformed study questionnaire consisting of 20 questions on general awareness, knowledge, and skills was used for pre- and posttest training assessment in RTNTP among 37 participants. Results: The knowledge of resuscitation among participants improved from a score of 10.8–89.1% (range: 78.3, median: 51.3 with an interquartile range [IQR] of [16.2–68.8] 52.6) to 94.5%–100%. The same for general awareness and skill improved from scores of 5.4–91.8% (range: 86.4, median: 37.8 with an IQR of [27–72.9] 45.9) to 91.8%–100% and for skills 18.9%–67.5% (range: 48.6, median: 27 with an IQR of [67.5–18.9] 48.6) to 94.5%–100%, respectively. The availability and accessibility of RTNTP trainings are critically limited in India. Conclusion: By introducing short-term training courses regularly in the academics (wherever lacking, more so in peripheries) to HCPs, their skills for effectively managing the LTEs can be enhanced and stable changes can be made for quality care in LTEs.
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Comparative evaluation of cognitive behavioral therapy and regular health education in reducing nicotine dependence among cigarette smokers: A randomized controlled trial p. 74
Praveen Kumar Varma Datla, Nagarjuna Prasad Mukarla, Pavan Kumar Chiluvuri, Sai Siva Naga Gayathri Naidu, Raghudeep Darisi, Kondapalli Tulasi Priya, Anudeep Kapalavayi
DOI:10.4103/jopcs.jopcs_10_21  
Introduction: It is important to introspect if the methods used in tobacco cessation counseling are effective in achieving abstinence and reducing nicotine dependence among tobacco users. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) at tobacco cessation clinics in a teaching dental institution in reducing nicotine dependence among dental patients with the habit of cigarette smoking in comparison to regular health education to quit tobacco. Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted in a teaching dental institution in the state of Andhra Pradesh. 160 self-reported current cigarette smokers with no tobacco chewing habits participated in the study. 80 each were assigned to the intervention group and control group where CBT for cessation of cigarette smoking and regular health education to quit smoking were provided, respectively. Data relating to frequency of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence scores using Fagerstrom nicotine dependence scale were collected at baseline. Both the groups were followed up for 4 months in two-monthly intervals. IBM SPSS version 20 software was used for data analysis. Results: While there was no significant difference in the mean nicotine dependence score between the study groups at baseline, a statistically significant difference was observed between the groups at follow up visits. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant reduction in nicotine dependence scores with time in the intervention group (P = 0.004), whereas the differences in the control group between different study time points were not significant (P = 0.39). It was also observed that the frequency of cigarette smoking reduced significantly between the baseline and follow-up visits in the intervention group (Cochran's Q-test; P = 0.028). Conclusion: The findings of this study provide an insight into the fact that CBT as tobacco cessation counseling technique is effective in reducing nicotine dependence among subjects seeking oral health care.
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Study of depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms and their associated risk factors among undergraduate nursing students in central India: A cross-sectional study p. 80
Priyanka Verma, Mamta Verma, Brajesh Lahri, Abhijit Pakhare, Sebi Das
DOI:10.4103/jopcs.jopcs_16_21  
Background: Assessment of mental health of undergraduate Indian nursing students using Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and determination of associated potential risk factors. Aims: The aim of the study was to find the prevalence of depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms among undergraduate nursing students, in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Central India. The study also aimed to find out potential risk factors associated with depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms in the study population. Methodology: The study was an analytical, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study done on undergraduate nursing students at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Central India. Data about depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms was collected by administering the DASS-21 questionnaire, to the participating individuals in English language. Prevalence of depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms was done described in percentages. Binomial logistic regression analysis was done to find out factors associated with moderate-to-severe grade of symptoms. Results: Our study shows the prevalence of moderate to very severe depressive symptoms to be 34.1%. Similarly, prevalence of moderate to very severe anxiety and stress symptoms was found to be 61.9% and 17.7%, respectively. On doing binomial logistic regression analysis, family relationship was found to be significantly associated with depressive (P = 0.00, odds ratio [OR] 0.638 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.877–0.464]) and stress (P = 0.002, OR 0.582 [95% CI 0.822–0.412]) symptoms. Similarly, adequate friend support was found to be significantly associated with anxiety (P = 0.04, OR 0.785 [95% CI 0.923–0.602]) and stress symptoms (P = 0.007, OR 0.645 [95% CI 0.885–0.469]). Conclusion: Our study concludes that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms among nursing students is alarmingly high. In our study, lack of healthy family relations and lack of friend support were found to be two main risk factors associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. There is a need to acknowledge the mental health issues of nursing students and to devise strategies to tackle them efficiently.
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Differential manifestation of COVID-19 anxiety and adherence to precautionary measures as a function of socioeconomic status: A longitudinal study in coastal Andhra Pradesh p. 85
Pradeep Kandikatla, Roopa Reddy Pandraveti, Vikramsimha Bommireddy, Raghudeep Darisi, Anudeep Kapalavayi, Srikanth Reddy Karra
DOI:10.4103/jopcs.jopcs_13_21  
Introduction: There is a possibility that the coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related anxiety may differ between people from varied socioeconomic status for a variety of reasons. Furthermore, the adherence to COVID-19 precautionary measures could be different between socioeconomic strata in light of the differences in opportunities to more effectively follow these measures for people from different socioeconomic status. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study was to check the differences in COVID-19 anxiety and precautionary measure adherence between subjects from different socioeconomic strata and to conduct a stratified analysis of the association between anxiety and adherence based on socioeconomic status of the participants. Materials and Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted in the months of July and November 2020 among 648 subjects belonging to the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh. The COVID-19 Anxiety Scale (CAS) was used to assess the disease-related anxiety among the study participants, and self-reported adherence (SRA) scores were collected to document the adherence of the study subjects to COVID-19 precautionary measures. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20 software. Results: Significant differences were found in the CAS scores between subjects from different socioeconomic strata in the month of July, while no such observations were made in November. For the outcome of SRA scores, there were significant differences between socioeconomic strata at both the study time points. Overall, the mean CAS and SRA scores decreased from July (20.35 ± 5.54 and 14.48 ± 3.45, respectively) to November (15.96 ± 5.67 and 12.57 ± 4.17, respectively). Conclusion: The study results highlight the need to reinforce the necessity and importance of adhering to COVID-19 precautionary measures in light of the potential danger of the second wave of COVID-19 in the country.
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CASE REPORTS Top

A case of left-sided infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abuser with mycotic aneurysm and myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronaries p. 91
Nitin Rustogi, Suguna Kari
DOI:10.4103/jopcs.jopcs_8_21  
Left-sided Infective endocarditis (IE) is an uncommon occurrence in intravenous drug users (IVDU) in clinical practice. This case describes a 28-year-old male IVDU who presented with abdominal pain, fever, and breathlessness and diagnosed with aortic valve IE. This case highlights the possibility of left-sided IE in IVDU and rare complications of ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction with Non-obstructive Coronaries and Mycotic Aneurysm (MA) associated with it.
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Sclerema neonatorum associated with early onset neonatal sepsis p. 94
Tarun Kumar Suvvari, Divya Bala A. M. R. Salibindla, C Sankar Narayana, Lakshmi Venkata Simhachalam Kutikuppala, Kruthika Mantha
DOI:10.4103/jopcs.jopcs_12_21  
Sclerema neonatorum (SN) is a rare condition with high mortality, usually prevalent in preterm newborns. SN is an infant panniculitis, in which adherence of skin, subcutaneous tissues with underlying muscles, and bones are seen. SN is more common among preterm newborns with high sepsis and the survival of the infants diagnosed with SN was very low. In this case report, we are presenting a case of SN in a preterm baby associated with early-onset neonatal sepsis.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Current challenges for researchers in India p. 97
Harish Gupta, Sudhir Kumar Verma, Satish Kumar, Medhavi Gautam
DOI:10.4103/jopcs.jopcs_9_21  
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